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    广东快乐十分最快开奖:Children's Interpersonal Behaviors and the Teacher-Child Relationship._图文

    北京十一选五开奖结果 www.frdg.net Developmental Psychology 1998, Vol. 34, No. 5, 934-946

    Copyright 1998 by the American Psychological Association, Inc.
    0012-1649/98/$;!. (X)

    Children's Interpersonal Behaviors and the Teacher-Child Relationship
    Sondra H. Birch and Gary W. Ladd
    University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign
    Relations between kindergartners' (N = 199; M age = 5 years 6 months) behavioral orientations and features of their Ist-grade teacher-child relationships (i.e., conflict, closeness, dependency) were examined longitudinally. Early behavioral orientations predicted teacher-child relationship quality in that (a) unique associations emerged between children's early antisocial behavior and features of their Ist-grade teacher-child relationships (i.e., negative relation with closeness, positive relation with conflict and dependency) and between asocial behavior and teacher-child dependency, and (b) prosocial behavior was correlated with but not uniquely related to any feature of children's Ist-grade teacher-child relationships. In addition, specific features of the teacher-child relationship (e.g., conflict) predicted changes in children's behavioral adjustment (e.g., decreasing prosocial behavior).

    This document is copyrighted by the American Psychological Association or one of its allied publishers. This article is intended solely for the personal use of the individual user and is not to be disseminated broadly.

    The linkages between children's interpersonal behaviors and their classroom relationships occupy a prominent position in recent models of early school adjustment and have garnered considerable empirical attention. Most of the studies conducted in this domain have been focused on children's peer relationships (i.e., ties with classmates). However, peers are not the only persons with whom children form relationships and interact in classrooms; the classroom teacher is also a significant figure in the school environment. Compared to the evidence assembled on children's relationships with classmates, far less is known about the determinants or consequences of children's teacherchild relationships. Tt is likely that children's behaviors affect the relationships that they form with teachers, and the relationships that children form with teachers affect their subsequent behavioral adjustment. These two premises are consistent with those addressed by researchers in the field of children's peer relations and with a growing corpus of empirical evidence in that domain (see Asher & Coie, 1990; Berndt & Ladd, 1989; Bukowski, Newcomb, & Hartup, 1996; Rubin & Asendorpf, 1993). Findings show that (a) antisocial behavior is an antecedent of peer rejec-

    Sondra H. Birch, Department of Educational Psychology, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign; Gary W. Ladd, Department of Educational Psychology and Department of Psychology, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. This study was supported by National Institute of Mental Health Grants 1-RO1MH-49223 and 2-RO1MH-49223. This article was prepared while Gary W. Ladd was a fellow at the Center for Advanced Study in the Behavioral Sciences at Stanford University, with support provided by Spencer Foundation Grant 199400132. Special appreciation is expressed to all the children and parents who made this study possible and to members of the Pathways Project for assistance with data collection. Correspondence concerning this article should be addressed to Sondra H. Birch or Gary W. Ladd, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 183 Children's Research Center, 51 Gerty Drive, Champaign, Illinois 61820. Electronic mail may be sent to [email protected]

    tion during early and middle childhood (e.g., Coie & Kupersmidt, 1983; Dodge, 1983; Ladd, Price, & Hart, 1988), (b) asocial behavior forecasts peer relationship problems as children grow older (Rubin & Asendorpf, 1993), and (c) prosocial behavior predicts peer acceptance (Dodge, 1983; Ladd et al., 1988). In addition, qualities of children's peer relationships, such as rejection by the peer group, have been linked to later behavioral adjustment outcomes, such as externalizing (e.g., antisocial, conduct problems) and internalizing (e.g., asocial, shy-anxious behavior) problems (see DeRosier, Kupersmidt, & Patterson, 1994; Parker & Asher, 1987). Of the research that has been conducted on the origins and outcomes of children's teacher-child relationships, the premise that has received the least empirical attention is that children's interpersonal behaviors affect the relationships that they form with teachers. Prior research on instructional environments (e.g., Brophy & Evertson, 1981) has shown that teachers' perceptions of students' behaviors are associated with the attitudes that teachers form toward specific children. Perhaps not surprisingly, teachers tend to prefer children who exhibit cooperative, cautious, and responsible behavior in the classroom over those who display disruptive, assertive, and independent behaviors (see Wentzel, 1991). In addition, Pianta and Steinberg (1992) have shown that problem behaviors, including conduct, internalizing, and learning difficulties, are negatively associated with the quality of early teacher-child relationships.' Somewhat greater investigative attention has been focused on the premise that the teacher-child relationship influences children's development and adjustment. Defining the teacherchild relationship and its features has been an essential point of departure in this area of investigation, and researchers have developed differing conceptual models for this purpose. Howes and colleagues (e.g., Howes & Hamilton, 1992, 1993; Howes &
    Whereas Pianta and Steinberg (1992) investigated conduct, internalizing, and learning problems, this investigation was focused on three distinct interpersonal behavioral orientations that may characterize children's early dispositions in the school environment.
    1

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    BEHAVIOR AND THE TEACHER-CHILD RELATIONSHIP

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    Matheson, 1992) have relied on attachment theory to delineate features of the teacher-child relationship (e.g., secure, avoidant, resistant/ambivalent), and other investigators (e.g., Lynch & Cicchetti, 1992) have identified features that reflect similar aspects of emotional quality (e.g., optimal, deprived, disengaged, confused, average). Alternatively, on the basis of concepts derived from attachment theory and research on teacher-child interactions, Pianta and colleagues (Pianta & Steinberg, 1992; Pianta, Steinberg, & Rollins, 1995) parsed the teacher-child relationship into three qualitative features termed closeness, conflict, and dependency (see Method section for construct definitions). To measure these features, Pianta et al. (1995) developed the Student-Teacher Relationship Scale (STRS), and this scale has been used widely as a measure of the teacherchild relationship; its items consistently factor into subscales that reflect these three relationship dimensions (see Birch & Ladd, 1997; Pianta et al., 1995; Taylor & Machida, 1996). Thus far, teacher-child closeness, conflict, and dependency have been examined primarily as correlates of children's school adjustment. Studies have shown that, whereas close teacherchild relationships are associated with positive child outcomes, such as school liking, classroom participation, and academic competence, conflictual teacher-child relationships are linked with negative outcomes, such as unfavorable school attitudes, school avoidance, classroom disengagement, and poor academic performance (see Birch & Ladd, 1997; Taylor & Machida, 1996). Dependency in the teacher-child relationship has been linked with some of the same adjustment difficulties that are associated with conflictual teacher-child relationships (see Birch & Ladd, 1997; Howes & Phillipsen, 1996). Unfortunately, little is known about how the teacher-child relationship may affect children's behavioral adjustment. Because of these voids, a central aim of this investigation was to gather evidence with a sample of young children and their teachers to examine the propositions that (a) children's behaviors affect the relationships that they form with teachers, (b) features of the teacher-child relationship affect children's behavioral adjustment, or (c) both. Children's classroom interpersonal behaviors as well as features of their relationships with teachers were assessed at two points in time: during the fall of kindergarten (K), as children entered grade school, and in the spring of the following year, near the completion of first grade ( G l ) . On each of these occasions, data were gathered on three aspects of children's classroom behavior (i.e., antisocial, asocial, and prosocial) and three aspects of children's relationships with teachers (i.e., closeness, conflict, and dependency). This longitudinal design provided the opportunity to predict changes in features of children's teacher-child relationships from K to Gl (across teachers) from their early classroom behavior (K), and changes in children's behavior from K to Gl from features of their early teacher-child relationships (K). To identify behaviors that play a central role in the formation and maintenance of teacher-child relationships, we began from the assumption that the behaviors children exhibit with peers may indicate a general interpersonal orientation that characterizes their interactions with others in the school environment. Miller (1993) suggested that children may form and maintain similar types of relationships in different domains as a result of

    their "constant stimulus value" across interactions and persons. In other words, a child's general behavioral orientation, or mode of relating to others, may result in similar outcomes in both peer and teacher-child relationships as well as in the same relationship context over time. Although the emergence of these orientations can be attributed to a variety of factors (e.g., biopsychosocial determinants; see Lamb & Nash, 1989; Patterson, DeBaryshe, & Ramsey, 1989), their temporal stability across childhood (and possibly the life span) has been attributed to social-behavioral mechanisms that Caspi, Elder, and Bern (1987, 1988) have labeled cumulative continuity and interactional continuity. The concept of cumulative continuity refers to the tendency for specific behavior patterns to be sustained as a result of the ongoing accumulation of their consequences. Children who exhibit asocial behavior, for example, may limit the extent to which others approach them as interaction partners, thus subjecting them to further isolation and fostering additional asocial behavior. Interactional continuity refers to the tendency for behavior patterns to persist over time because they evoke self-perpetuating expectations in novel situations. For example, children who rely on antisocial behaviors (e.g., aggression) are more likely to attribute hostile intentions to peers in ambiguous situations (see Dodge & Frame, 1982). This inference may trigger additional (e.g., preemptive) antisocial behavior that elicits hostile reactions from others and, thus, confirms the child's expectations and perpetuates the use of antisocial behaviors in the future. On the basis of the work of Caspi, Elder, and Bern (1987, 1988) and others (Homey, 1945), three types of behavioral orientations moving "against," "away," and "toward" others were targeted for investigation because they represent modes of interaction that are conceptually linked with the types of relational outcomes that were examined in this study. Moving "against" others was defined as an interaction style that is aversive or disruptive to a child's interaction partners and was operational! zed with measures of antisocial behavior that were obtained from teachers and peers.2 These included a teacherreport composite containing two measures of antisocial behavior (i.e., aggression and hyperactivity) and a peer-report composite containing measures of children's verbal and physical aggression. Consistent with evidence found in the peer relations literature, it was anticipated that the tendency for children to move against others, as manifested in their use of antisocial behaviors, would escalate negative features of the teacher-child relationship, such as conflict, and suppress positive attributes, such as closeness. Such findings would be consonant with the hypothesized effects of antisocial styles on children's interaction partners, including teachers. Children who frequently engage in oppositional or disruptive behaviors are likely to break rules, upset classroom order, and provoke confrontations with teachers (see Safran & Safran, 1985), all of which are likely to have adverse effects on the teacher-child relationship. It is less clear how
    2 Peer nominations were used to obtain a measure of antisocial behavior but were not used to tap the other behavioral orientations because young children's perceptions of agemates' withdrawn and prosocial behaviors appear to be less reliable (see Ladd & Mars, 1986; Younger, Gentile, & Burgess, 1993).

    936

    BIRCH AND LADD that young boys have more conflictual relationships with their teachers and that young girls have more close and dependent teacher-child relationships (see Birch & Ladd, 1997; Saft, 1994). To determine whether features of the teacher-child relationship affect children's behavioral adjustment, we began with the premise that children derive certain psychosocial benefits and costs from their participation in relationships. Here again, the conceptual frameworks that have emerged in the literatures on teacher-child (e.g., Birch & Ladd, 1996a, 1996b; Howes & Hamilton, 1993; Howes &Phillipsen, 1996;Piantaetal., 1995), peer (e.g., Berndt, 1996; Rinnan & Robbins, 1985; Ladd & Kochenderfer, 1996; Parker & Asher, 1989), and parent-child relationships (e.g., Elicker, Englund, & Sroufe, 1992; Parke, Cassidy, Burks, Carson, & Boyum, 1992) served as a basis for hypotheses about the adaptive significance of particular features of the teacher-child relationship. In close relationships with teachers, children may derive potential resources, such as emotional support and security, and may infer positive relationship expectations or schemas, all of which may enhance the trajectory of moving "toward" others in social-behavioral contexts such as the classroom. Empirically, then, it was expected that teacher-child closeness in kindergarten would be associated with increases in children's prosocial behavior and decreases in children's antisocial behavior over time. The reverse of these trends was anticipated for children who evidenced higher levels of teacher-child conflict early in kindergarten because this aspect of the relationship may serve as a model for moving "against" others (Putallaz & Heflin, 1990), may escalate cycles of coercion and antisocial behavior (see Patterson et al., 1989), and may strengthen beliefs about the effectiveness and legitimacy of antisocial acts, thereby reducing corresponding inhibitions (Crick & Ladd, 1990; Erdley, 1996; D. G. Perry, L. C. Perry, & Rasmussen, 1986). Higher levels of teacher-child dependency may reflect an alliance with the teacher that children use to shield themselves from anxiety-producing situations, such as coping with age-mates or classroom social challenges. In this relational context, children may be inadvertently rewarded (e.g., negatively reinforced) for moving "away" from peers and therefore may be expected to display increasing levels of peer avoidance and asocial behavior. Support for these predictions can be found in recent literature. Howes and Hamilton (1993), for example, found that older toddlers who experienced a negative shift in the quality of their teacher-child relationships displayed more aggressive behavior than did their counterparts who had not experienced such a shift. Further, younger toddlers whose relationships became more secure over time exhibited more prosocial behavior than did children who had insecure teacher-child relationships. In addition, Pianta (1994) found that children who had dysfunctional or angry-dependent teacher-child relationships in kindergarten displayed more negative behavior in their first-grade classrooms than did their classmates with more positive early teacher-child relationships. Method

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    this behavioral orientation might be associated with teacherchild dependency. On the one hand, antisocial behavior may be a sign of immaturity (e.g., reliance on age-inappropriate tactics to solve social problems), in which case it may be positively associated with dependency in the teacher-child relationship. On the other hand, the tendency to move against others may have little to do with this relationship feature if the origins of dependency lie in avoidant rather than oppositional behaviors. These possibilities were examined as empirical questions. The behavioral orientation referred to as moving "away" from others signifies a reluctance or lack of interest in relating with others and was measured with a composite containing asocial and anxious-fearful behaviors. Thus, by definition, children who exhibit a propensity to move away from others are likely to be less confrontational and more submissive in their interactions with adults and children and, therefore, unlikely to develop conflictual relationships with their teachers. This same orientation may cause children to be wary of certain aspects of the classroom social milieu (e.g., classmates, group activities) and to compensate for such feelings by seeking comfort or support from the teacher. These processes may contribute to features such as dependency in the teacher-child relationship, as in cases in which children's reluctance or avoidance elicits a protective alliance with the teacher. The likelihood that this orientation leads to teacher-child closeness is more difficult to estimate. If these children are relatively more interested in adults than peers (e.g., see Allen, Hart, Buell, Harris, & Wolfe, 1964), then there is some probability that they will establish a close relationship with their teachers. Alternatively, if the propensity to move away from others is pervasive, these children may seek to isolate themselves from teachers as well as peers and, thus, preclude the formation of close teacher—child relationships. Moving "toward" others constitutes an interaction style that is engaging and rewarding of one's social partners, and this orientation was tapped with a measure of children's prosocial behavior. The helpful, cooperative behaviors indicative of this orientation correspond to what Jones (1985) has termed ' 'relational competence" and are known to foster harmonious relationships with peers. Accordingly, it was anticipated that this orientation would emerge as the best single (positive) predictor of teacher-child closeness and would be negatively associated with teacher-child conflict. This orientation indicates a level of social maturity that would seem to be at odds with an overreliance on peers or adults and thus was not expected to foster dependency in the teacher-child relationship. Gender differences in the types of behaviors that forecast teacher-child relationship features were also examined. Boys, for example, have often been found to display higher levels of confrontational antisocial behaviors, such as aggression, than do girls (Cairns & Cairns, 1994; Parke & Slaby, 1983) and therefore were expected to develop teacher-child relationships that were more conflictual. Girls, in contrast, tend to display less antisocial-confrontational and more prosocial behaviors in interpersonal contexts (Cairns & Cairns, 1994; Radke-Yarrow, Zahn-Waxler, & Chapman, 1983) and thus were expected to develop teacher-child relationships that were closer or more dependent than those of boys. Moreover, these hypotheses are consistent with the findings reported in several studies indicating

    Participants
    A sample of kindergarten children (N = 199) and their teachers (N = 17) were recruited from seven public elementary schools located in

    BEHAVIOR AND THE TEACHER-CHILD RELATIONSHIP three Midwestern communities in the United States, as pan of a larger longitudinal study. In each classroom, at least 80% of the children had written parental permission to participate in the study, and only children with permission were chosen to be participants. Ninety-six children (48%) were boys, and 103 children (52%) were girls. The mean age of the children at the beginning of the kindergarten year was 5 years 6 months. The sample was 81% Caucasian, 15% African American, 1% Hispanic, and 3% mixed ethnicities. The three communities were chosen to represent a variety of demographic characteristics, and they ranged from rural to moderately urban. The majority of children came from low- to middle-socioeconomicstatus (SES) families. Family SES scores on the Entwisle and Astone (1994) Socioeconomic Index ranged from 0.00 to 97.16 (Mdn = 48.54). On this scale, scores of 0.00 are assigned to individuals who are unemployed, scores of 97.16 are assigned to occupations such as physician, and scores of approximately 50.00 are assigned to occupations such as administrative support staff, health technicians, and electronic sales personnel. All 17 kindergarten teachers were Caucasian women. Their years of teaching experience ranged from 0 to 27 years (Af = 13 years 7 months). We were able to obtain first-grade teacher data for 198 (99%) of our original kindergarten participants and first-grade sociometric data for 195 (98%) of our participants. We collected first-grade follow-up data in 53 classrooms with 56 teachers (53 women, 3 men). The sample of first-grade teachers was 95% Caucasian and 5% African American, and their years of teaching experience ranged from 1 to 33 years (Af = 15 years 3 months).

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    nate (point to pictures of) up to three peers who fit the following behavioral descriptors: (a) "someone in your class who hits and pushes other kids" (physical aggression) and (b) "someone in your class who says mean things to other kids" (verbal aggression). Peer-perceived physical and verbal aggression scores were created by averaging the number of nominations each child received from all classmates for each criterion and by standardizing these scores within classrooms. Because scores for the physical and verbal nomination measures were highly correlated (rs >.75 at each time of measurement), they were summed to form a composite peer-perceived aggression index.

    Relationship Assessment
    The Student-Teacher Relationship Scale (STRS; Pianta et al., 1995) is a 30-item scale that was used to assess teachers' perceptions of three features of their relationships with their students. The Conflict subscale comprised 12 items that tapped the extent to which the teacher-child relationship was characterized by antagonistic, disharmonious interactions (e.g., "This child and I always seem to be struggling with each other.", "Dealing with this child drains my energy."; a = .94 at both times of assessment). The Closeness subscale was an 11-item index of the degree of warmth and open communication present in the teacherchild relationship (e.g., "I share an affectionate, warm relationship with this child.", "This child openly shares his/her feelings and experiences with m e " ; as ranged from .88-.91). Finally, the Dependency subscale contained four items that assess the degree to which the child seems overly dependent (i.e., clingy, possessive) on the teacher (e.g., "This child is overly dependent on me.'', ' 'This child asks for my help when he/she doesn't really need help."; as ranged from .72 to .80). Teachers rated items in terms of how applicable each statement was to their current relationship with a particular child. Responses ranged from 1 (definitely does not apply) to 5 (definitely applies). Scores were computed by averaging item scores within subscales.

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    Measures Behavioral Assessment
    Child Behavior Scale. Children's behavior was rated by teachers using the Child Behavior Scale (CBS; Ladd & Profilet, 1996), an instrument that was designed to assess young children's behavior with peers at school. The CBS demonstrated adequate internal reliability in the present study, as reported below. In addition, supportive evidence for the construct validity of the CBS has been obtained including significant correlations in expected directions with observer and peer ratings of behavior (see Ladd & Profilet 1996). Five subscales from the CBS were relevant to the present study: Aggressive Behavior (e.g., "Kicks, bites, or hits other children;" a = .90), Hyperactive-Distractible Behavior ("Restless; runs about or jumps up and down;" a = .93), Prosocial Behavior ("Cooperative with peers;" a = .91), Asocial Behavior ("Avoids peers;" a = .87), and Anxious-Fearful behavior ("Tends to be fearful or afraid of new things or situations;"' a = .79). Teachers rated the extent to which each of the 59 items was applicable to a particular child. Responses ranged from 1 (doesn't apply) to 3 (certainly applies). For each child, a score was computed for each subscale by summing the scores on the items within a subscale and dividing by the number of items composing the subscale. For the present study, three composite variables were created to reflect the three behavioral ' 'orientations'" under investigation: moving "against," "away from" and "toward" other individuals. Specifically, children's scores on aggressive and hyperactive-distractible behavior (r — .64, p < .001) were summed to create an antisocial behavior score, ratings of asocial and anxious-fearful behavior ( r = .46, p < .001) were summed to create an asocial behavior score, and children's prosocial behavior score was used to represent prosocial behavior. Peer nominations of aggression. An additional measure of children's aggressive behavior was obtained from peer informants (see footnote 2). During individual interviews, children from each classroom (all those with parental permission) were shown a display containing head-and-shoulders photographs of classmates and were asked to nomi-

    Procedure
    Participants and classmates were interviewed individually at school in October through November of the kindergarten year by trained undergraduate and graduate students. Kindergarten teachers completed the STRS and the CBS in November of the kindergarten year, and firstgrade teachers completed the STRS and the CBS in March through April of the following school year. Also in the spring semester of first grade, participants and their first-grade classmates were individually interviewed with the same procedures that were used in kindergarten. At each assessment time, the peer nomination measure (in addition to other measures not reported here) was administered to children on two separate occasions lasting approximately 40 min each (to avoid participant fatigue). Participants who were not in the larger longitudinal study completed only the sociometric measure in one 15-min session at school. Interviewers introduced themselves to each child, assured them of the confidentiality of their responses, and conducted the interviews in semiprivate school locations. Children were thoroughly trained on the response choices for each measure with practice questions before proceeding to the actual items. After completing each of the two sessions, children were thanked for their participation and were given several colorful stickers on a sticker page. Teachers were paid for their participation.

    Results Behavioral Orientation Composites: Validity, Intercorrelations, and Stability
    A series of correlational analyses was conducted to (a) assess the concurrent validity of the behavioral measures used in the

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    BIRCH AND LADD

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    present study, (b) determine the degree of association between the behavioral composites, and (c) assess the stability of the composites from kindergarten to first grade. First, the composite measures of antisocial, asocial, and prosocial behavior (as assessed with the CBS) were significantly associated, in the expected directions, with subscales from a nationally normed teacher-report measure of classroom behavior, the Teacher Report Form of the Child Behavior Checklist (TRF; Achenbach, 1991). The obtained coefficients supported the validity of the behavioral composites; the antisocial behavioral composite correlated positively with the TRF Aggressive Behavior subscale (r = .77), the asocial composite correlated positively with the TRF Withdrawn Behavior subscale (r ~ .56), and the prosocial behavioral composite correlated negatively with the TRF Aggressive Behavior subscale (r - - . 4 4 , allps < .001). In addition, peer nominations of aggression were positively correlated with the antisocial behavioral composite (r = .65, p < .001) and the TRF Aggressive Behavior subscale (r = .64, p < .001). Second, in the fall of kindergarten, scores for the antisocial composite were negatively correlated with those for the prosocial measure (r = -.61,p< .001). The asocial composite was not significantly associated with scores for either antisocial or prosocial measures. Finally, the antisocial composite exhibited the greatest stability over time (r = .60), followed by scores for the prosocial (r = .32) and asocial (r = .26, all ps < .001) composites.

    Table 1 Gender Differences in Behavior and Relationships: Analysis of Variance Results
    Boys Measure M SD M Girls SD F value

    Behavior (kindergarten) Antisocial Prosocial Asocial 3.29 2.20 2.59 1.10 0.56 0.70 2.57 2.44 2.62 0.78 0.50 0.74 28.92*** 10.56*** 0.13

    Teacher-child relationship (first grade) Closeness Conflict Dependency 3.73 1.92 1.68 0.65 0.95 0.72 4.07 1.35 1.51 0.60 0.62 0.62 14.19*** 25.22*** 2.98f

    Note. First-grade teacher-child relationship, djs = 1 and 196. Kindergarten behavior composites, dfs = 1 and 197. t p < .10. ***p < .001.

    Children's Behavioral Orientations and the Teacher-Child Relationship
    Correlational analyses were performed to examine the association between children's early behavioral orientations and features of their teacher-child relationships in kindergarten (concurrently) and with new teachers in first grade (predictively). As shown in Table 2, early antisocial behavior correlated positively with teacher-child conflict and negatively with teacherchild closeness both in kindergarten and in first grade; this behavioral orientation also correlated positively (although moderately so) with teacher-child dependency in first grade. Similar but weaker associations were found between asocial behavior and the three teacher-child relationship features in kindergarten and first grade, although a somewhat stronger and more consistent positive association emerged for teacher-child dependency. Early prosocial behavior correlated positively with teacherchild closeness, negatively with conflict, and was negatively (but weakly) associated with dependency in first grade.

    Teacher-Child Relationship Measures: Intercorrelations and Stability
    Correlational analyses were conducted to assess the degree of association between measures of the teacher—child relationship that were obtained in kindergarten and first grade and to examine the stability of these measures from kindergarten to first grade. Teacher ratings of closeness correlated negatively with conflict (r = - .54, r - - .56, p < .001) and dependency (r = - . 2 2 , p < .01; r = - . 0 1 , ns), and conflict correlated positively with ratings of dependency (r = .55, r — .41, p < ,001) during kindergarten and first grade, respectively. Of these three relationship dimensions, teacher-child conflict exhibited the highest degree of stability between kindergarten and first grade (r = .50, p < .001), followed by closeness (r = .38, p < .001) and dependency O = .18, p < .05).

    Predicting Features of the Teacher-Child Relationships in First Grade From Child Behavior and Teacher-Child Relationships in Kindergarten
    For each teacher-child relationship dimension measured in first grade, two separate hierarchical regression analyses were performed to evaluate the relative contributions of prior child behavior (i.e., kindergarten behavioral composites) and prior features of the teacher-child relationship (i.e., corresponding measures of the teacher-child relationship in kindergarten) to first-grade teacher-child relationship quality.3 In each analysis, kindergarten
    3 We also computed (but do not report) regressions in which individual difference scores for children's behavior and teacher-child relationships were entered after partialing the classroom averages for these measures (the latter measures were created by assigning children from the same classroom the average score for the rating measure for that classroom). Differences in teachers* use of rating scales (i.e., as represented in classroom average scores) accounted for little or no variance

    Gender Differences in Behavior and Relationships
    A series of ANOVAs conducted to explore gender differences in the behaviors attributed to boys and girls in kindergarten (see Table 1) revealed that kindergarten teachers rated boys as significantly more antisocial and girls as more prosocial. Girls and boys did not differ on ratings of asocial behaviors. Next, a series of ANOVAs were performed to examine possible gender differences in the quality of children's teacher-child relationships in first grade (see Table 1). Ratings of closeness were significantly higher for girls than for boys, and ratings of conflict were significantly higher for boys than for girls.

    BEHAVIOR AND THE TEACHER-CHILD RELATIONSHIP

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    Table 2 Relation Between Children's Kindergarten Behavior (Composite Scores) and the Teacher-Child Relationship
    Behavior and assessment period Antisocial K Gl Asocial K Gl Prosocial
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    Conflict 70*** .60*** .23** .12 -.56*** -.38***

    Closeness — 44*** -.48*** -.24** -.17* 65*** .35***

    Dependency .11 31*** 43*** .22** -.07 -.22**

    Gl

    K

    Note. K = correlations between kindergarten behavior and kindergarten relationships; Gl = correlations between kindergarten behavior and first-grade relationships. *p<.05. **p<.0\. ***p<.001.

    Further, this finding did not appear to be an artifact that resulted from including three behavioral composites in the analyses (as a block) versus only one teacher-child relationship measure. In each analysis, the unique contributions of individual behavioral composites (as reflected in the standardized betas) were consistently significant and larger than the unique contribution of the teacher-child relationship measure. Specifically, in the analyses involving conflict and dependency, the betas for the significant behavioral composites were significantly different from zero, whereas the betas for the kindergarten teacher-child relationship feature in each analysis were not significant. In the analysis involving teacher-child closeness, the beta for antisocial behavior was larger in magnitude than the beta for kindergarten closeness.4 Finally, two Behavior x Relationship Feature interaction terms made statistically significant contributions to first-grade teacher-child conflict: Antisocial Behavior X Kindergarten Conflict and Prosocial Behavior X Kindergarten Conflict. Algorithms outlined by Cohen and Cohen (1983) were used to plot and interpret each significant interaction term. Examination of the slopes of the regression lines indicated that both of these interactions were ordinal (within the plotted range of +1 SD from the mean), indicating that the rank order of each of the independent variables in the interaction remained the same across different levels of the other independent variable. This suggested that, although statistically significant, these interactions did not meaningfully qualify the main effects of early behavior and relationships on later relationships.

    behavior was entered as a block of measures containing the three behavioral composites. If the variance attributable to this block was significant, then the unique contributions attributable to individual composites was assessed (see Cohen & Cohen, 1983). In each regression equation, children's gender was entered first to assess gender differences. Next, the kindergarten relationship measure that corresponded to the criterion and the block of kindergarten behavioral composites were entered on the second and third steps of the equation, alternating their order of entry in the two separate analyses. Thus, in the first analysis (see top panels of Tables 3,4, and 5), the kindergarten relationship score was entered prior to behavior to take into account the quality of the previous teacher-child relationship. In the second analysis (see bottom panels of Tables 3, 4, and 5), the block of behavior composites was entered before the index of prior relationship quality. Kindergarten behavior and relationship interaction terms were entered on the last step of each analysis. All measures were entered prior to calculation of interaction terms (see Cohen & Cohen, 1983). Gender x Relationship interaction terms were not statistically significant and thus were dropped from the analyses. The overall regression analyses performed on each of the first-grade teacher-child relationship outcomes were significant (see Tables 3, 4, and 5). Gender accounted for significant variation in teacher-child conflict and closeness but not in dependency. Relationships were rated as more conflictual with boys than with girls and closer with girls than with boys. After controlling for gender, entering the block of behavioral composites and the teacher-child relationship measure in differing hierarchical orders showed that prior behavior accounted for more unique variance in first-grade relationships than did prior relationship features, and this result was consistent across all three teacher-child relationship dimensions (see Tables 3, 4, and 5).

    Relative Contributions of Behavioral Orientations to First-Grade Relationships
    Because the block of composite behavior measures made significant contributions in each of the prior regression analyses, further analyses were conducted to isolate the unique contributions of each behavioral composite included in the block. This was accomplished by examining, within the block, the contribution of each composite after each of the other two composites had been partialed.

    Moving Against Others
    Kindergarten antisocial behavior was significantly associated with all three aspects of children's first-grade teacher-child relationships. Inspection of the standardized betas for these measures revealed that children who were seen as exhibiting behaviors characterized as moving "against" others in kindergarten were more likely to have conflictual, dependent, nonclose relationships with their teachers in first grade. Nearly identical results were obtained when the peer-reported aggression composite was used as a predictor instead of the teacher-reported antisocial composite.5
    4 Although it is possible to test differences between betas to determine whether one is significantly larger than another, it is not advised. Pedhazur (1982) stated, "Although such an interpretation is legitimate, it is not free of problems because the betas are affected, among other things, by the variability of the variable with which they are associated" (p. 64). 5 This result is not surprising, given that the teacher- and peer-report measures were highly correlated. The findings do, however, further attest to the validity of the antisocial behavioral composite.

    in any of the criteria and did not alter the pattern or statistical significance of the reported results.

    940

    BIRCH AND LADD

    Table 3 Regression Analysis: Predicting First-Grade Teacher-Child Relationships From Kindergarten Behavior and Relationships: Criterion: Teacher-Child Conflict
    Block Variables entered R-1 increment Analysis 1 1 2 3 Gender Kindergarten conflict Kindergarten behavioral composites Antisocial Asocial Prosocial Behavior X Conflict interaction terms Antisocial X conflict Asocial X Conflict Presocial X Conflict .20**** Og**** ,07**** .00 .00 .05** .05*** .00 .03** .34 .56 .63 -.17 .09 32** .11 .32 .40 Multiple R

    0

    R2

    4
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    .67 .36*** .23**

    .45

    Analysis 2 1 2 Gender Kindergarten behavioral composites Antisocial Asocial Prosocial Kindergarten conflict Behavior X Conflict interaction terms
    1 ]****

    3 4

    27**** ^6**** .00 .00 .02* .05**

    .34 .62

    -.17 .32**

    .11 .38

    .63 .67

    .09

    .40 ,45

    Overall F(8, 189) = 19.06**** Note. Numbers in boldface represent the unique contributions of the individual measures included in each block. *p < .05. **p < .01. ***p < .001. ****/> < .0001.

    Moving Away From Others
    Asocial behavior in kindergarten was significantly related to children's dependency on their first-grade teacher. Examination of standardized betas for asocial behavior indicated that children who, in kindergarten, exhibited behaviors characterized as moving "away from" others were significantly more likely to be rated as dependent by their first-grade teachers.

    Moving Toward Others
    Behaviors characterized as moving "toward" others were not uniquely related to any aspect of children's first-grade teacher-child relationships.

    Predicting Behavior in First Grade From Teacher-Child Relationships and Child Behavior in Kindergarten
    For each behavioral composite measured in first grade, a regression analysis was performed to evaluate the contribution of kindergarten teacher-child relationships to first-grade behavior (beyond the contribution of kindergarten behavior). In each analysis, children's gender was entered first, followed by (a) the kindergarten behavioral composite that corresponded to the behavioral criterion and then (b) the block of teacher-child relationship measures. Finally, Behavior X Relationship interaction terms were entered on the last step of each analysis. Children's gender made a significant contribution to first-

    grade antisocial (A/? 2 = .11, p < .0001) and prosocial (AR2 — .11, p < .0001) behavioral composites. As demonstrated with the kindergarten behavioral composites (Table 1), first-grade teachers rated boys higher in antisocial behavior and girls higher in prosocial behavior. After controlling for gender and prior behavior in kindergarten, the kindergarten teacher-child relationship accounted for a significant portion of the variance in children's first-grade prosocial behavior (AR2 = .06, p < .01). The unique contributions of each relationship dimension were examined by determining the variance accounted for by each feature (i.e., conflict, closeness, dependency) after the other two features had been partialed. Only kindergarten conflict significantly contributed to first-grade prosocial behavior (AR2 = .05, p < .001). The beta for this measure indicated that kindergarten teacher-child conflict was negatively related to the criterion, implying that children with conflictual teacher-child relationships in kindergarten were less likely to be prosocial in first grade than were children with less conflictual kindergarten teacher-child relationships. Using the same analytic strategy, we found that none of the teacher-child relationship measures predicted children's asocial behavior in first grade. This was also the case for antisocial behaviors, as reported by teachers. However, in the analysis in which the peer aggression composite served as the criterion, kindergarten teacher-child conflict accounted for a small but significant portion of the variance in the residualized aggression scores (AR2 = .03, p < .05). Finally, the Behavior x Relationship interaction terms made

    BEHAVIOR AND THE TEACHER-CHILD RELATIONSHIP Table 4 Regression Analysis: Predicting First-Grade Teacher-Child Relationships From Kindergarten Behavior and Relationships: Criterion: Teacher-Child Closeness
    Block Variables entered
    2 R increment

    941

    Multiple R

    R2

    Analysis 1 1 2 3 Gender Kindergarten closeness Kindergarten behavioral composites Antisocial Asocial Prosocial Behavior X Closeness interaction terms .10**** 1 ^**** .08**** .01 .00 .02 .26 .41 .52 .06 24** -.40*** .54 .30 .07 .17 .27

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    4

    Analysis 2 1 2 Gender Kindergarten behavioral composites Antisocial Asocial Prosocial Kindergarten closeness Behavior X Closeness interaction terms Q7*** [9**** .00 .02* ,02 .26 .51 .06 _ 4Q*** -.08 .52 .54 .24** .27 .30 .07 .26

    !o2t

    3 4

    Overall F(8, 189) = 9.87**** Note. Numbers in boldface represent the unique contributions of the individual measures included in each block. t p < .10. * p < .05. **p < .01. ***p < .001. ****/? < .0001.

    significant contributions to first-grade asocial behavior (A/? 2 .10, p < .001) but not to antisocial or prosocial behaviors. Further analyses were conducted to identify the unique contributions of each interaction term in the block by examining the

    contribution of each interaction term after the other two terms had been partialed. These analyses revealed that both the Dependency x Asocial Behavior interaction ( A R 1 — .07, p < .001) and the Closeness X Asocial Behavior interaction (AR2 — .04,

    Table 5 Regression Analysis: Predicting First-Grade Teacher-Child Relationships From Kindergarten Behavior and Relationships: Criterion: Teacher-Child Dependency
    Block Variables entered R2 increment Analysis 1 1 2 3 Gender Kindergarten dependency Kindergarten behavioral composites Antisocial Asocial Prosocial Behavior X Dependency interaction terms Analysis 2 1 2 Gender Kindergarten behavioral composites Antisocial Asocial Prosocial Kindergarten dependency Behavior X Dependency interaction terms .02f 12**** .04** .04** .00 .01 .01 .12 .36 -.05 .24* .17* .37 .38 .10 .14 .14 .02 .13 .02f .04** .08*** .03** .02* .00 .01 .12 .24 .37 -.05 .10 .24* .17* .02 .06 .14 Multiple R f3 R2

    4

    .38

    .14

    3 4

    Overall F(8, 189) = 3.93*** Note. Numbers in boldface represent the unique contributions of the individual measures included in each block. t p < .10. * p < .05. **p < .01. ***/? < .001. ****p < .0001.

    942

    BIRCH AND LADD mates, which may be reflected in the greater dependency associated with early antisocial behavior. Antisocial behavior exhibited the greatest degree of stability between kindergarten and first grade, as did the teacher-child relationship features with which it was most strongly related (i.e., conflict and closeness). This is consistent with prior research indicating a great deal of stability in the exhibition of certain types of antisocial behavior over time. In a review of studies concerning the stability of aggression, Olweus (1979) concluded that aggressive behavior exhibited a substantial degree of continuity over time and equated the magnitude of the stability with that typically described for the construct of intelligence. The issue of stability is important to consider because it implies an enduring characteristic or personality trait that resides " i n " the child or, at least, a reaction tendency that is likely to be elicited under certain conditions. Because aggressive and hyperactive behavioral styles display such continuity and because these behaviors are associated with problematic relationship outcomes in multiple domains, it is important to identify children who are displaying these types of behaviors and to implement strategies to modify their maladaptive style of interaction. Indeed, numerous social skills training programs have been designed to reduce antisocial behavior in children (e.g., Coie, Underwood, & Lochman, 1991; Zahavi & Asher, 1978), with varying degrees of success.

    p < .01) were significantly related to first-grade asocial behavior. Each of these interactions was plotted according to procedures outlined in Cohen and Cohen (1983) and was found to be ordinal (i.e., to have similar slopes), suggesting that these interactions did not qualify the main effects of early relationships and behavior on later behavior. Discussion The results from this study support the view that early styles of interpersonal interaction have important implications for children's social-psychological adjustment by illuminating how children's early behavioral orientations are related to the relationships that they form with significant adult figures in the school environment (i.e., classroom teachers). The findings are consistent with the first of the two premises that were articulated for this investigation and suggest that (a) the behavioral orientations that children display early in kindergarten (i.e., moving ''against," "away from," or "toward" others) are associated with the quality of later teacher-child relationships and (b) some of the same types of behaviors that have been found to predict the quality of children's peer relationships also forecast features of the teacherchild relationship. This study extends prior work on the antecedents of teacher-child relationships (e.g., Pianta & Steinberg, 1992) by specifying the types of early behavioral orientations that are related to changes in children's teacher-child relationships. In addition, the present study provided evidence that particular behavioral orientations (i.e., antisocial) appear to be more stable over time and may therefore be more predictive of certain enduring relational outcomes for children. The specific nature of the linkages between these behavioral orientations and various relationship outcomes is explicated below. Finally, the lack of significant Gender X Behavior interaction effects suggests that the role of behavior in children's social adjustment is similar for boys and girls (see Brophy & Good, 1974).

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    Moving "Away" From Others
    Asocial behavior early in kindergarten was uniquely associated with dependency in first grade, suggesting that asocial behavioral orientations may also be important markers of particular future relational outcomes. Asocial (especially anxious-asocial) children may require more guidance or supervision from teachers to manage their fragile emotional states, which may lead teachers to perceive them as more dependent. The linkage with teacher-rated dependency is consistent with evidence suggesting that young withdrawn children are more likely than their classmates to invoke "adult intervention" solutions to interpersonal dilemmas (e.g., Rubin & Krasnor, 1986). In addition, children whose behavior is characterized as moving "away from" others may be less ready to meet the demands of the school environment, including forming and maintaining positive relationships with teachers (and with peers as children grow older; see Coie, Dodge, & Kupersmidt, 1990; Rubin, 1993). Asocial behavior exhibited a modest degree of stability from kindergarten to first grade, which is consistent with prior evidence suggesting a moderate degree of continuity in social withdrawal in early elementary school (e.g., Rubin, 1993). This behavioral orientation was relatively less stable over time, however, than were the other two behavioral orientations. This may explain the relatively lesser stability in dependency (the relationship feature most strongly associated with this behavioral orientation) in addition to the observation that children tend to become less dependent on their teachers as they progress from their 1st year in a novel environment through subsequent years of schooling. The modest continuity in asocial behavior over time, combined with the potential for relational difficulties, suggests the importance of detecting and attending to asocial behav-

    Moving "Against" Others
    Early antisocial behavior in kindergarten was associated with higher levels of conflict and lower levels of closeness in children's kindergarten and first-grade teacher-child relationships. Thus, this behavioral orientation may be a useful indicator of early risk for teacher-child relational difficulties, both concurrently and in the future. Behaviors characterized as moving against other individuals (e.g., aggression, hyperactivity) are apt to be problematic for teachers in terms of classroom management, discipline, and instruction and to be aversive in the context of one-on-one interpersonal interactions. On the basis of a review of several relevant studies, Brophy and Evertson (1981) concluded that teachers react more negatively to behavior that threatens their security (e.g., aggressive or defiant behavior) than they do to behaviors such as social withdrawal. The present findings suggest that antisocial behavior is likely to foster disharmonious interactions and relationships with teachers and peers and may hamper the formation of close relationships in the classroom. In addition, children who exhibit inappropriate interpersonal behaviors may be less socially mature than their class-

    BEHAVIOR AND THE TEACHER-CHILD RELATIONSHIP

    943

    iors when designing intervention programs to ameliorate children's social adjustment problems (e.g., O'Connor, 1972).

    Moving "Toward" Others
    Prosocial behavior did not uniquely account for a significant portion of the variance in first-grade teacher-child relationships, although correlational analyses revealed significant associations with kindergarten closeness and conflict as well as with all three aspects of first-grade teacher-child relationships. Although "moving toward" others in the classroom (e.g., being helpful, cooperative, and considerate) was expected to be associated with more adaptive relational outcomes, other behavioral orientations (i.e., antisocial, asocial) may have been more salient or relevant to teachers as they formed their impressions and relationships with children at school. Further, from a process perspective, the linkages between these behaviors and certain aspects of the teacher-child relationship may not be as strong as the connections between other behavioral styles and the relationship outcomes that were assessed in this study. For example, the prosocial behaviors that were assessed in this study may be positively evaluated by teachers but may not correspond closely to the construct of teacher-child closeness, as defined here (i.e., the degree of warmth and open communication that exists between the child and the teacher). Children's antisocial and asocial behaviors, however, may be more reflective of underlying processes (e.g., self-regulatory deficits) that permeate interactions with both teachers and peers, resulting in a stronger linkage between these behavioral orientations and the teacher-child relationship. In addition, it would appear that variance in relationship features that was attributable to prosocial behavior was often redundant with that accounted for by the other behavioral composites. In fact, there is evidence to suggest that prosocial behavior exerts its influence through its relation to other behaviors that children exhibit; for example, Parkhurst and Asher (1992) found that aggressive children were less likely to be rejected by peers if they also displayed at least moderate levels of prosocial behavior. Finally, prosocial behavior exhibited a moderate degree of stability between kindergarten and first grade. Again, this implies that children's early behavioral styles are enduring and may represent dispositional characteristics or may reflect the likelihood that similar environmental stimuli (e.g., social demands of the classroom) elicit similar patterns of social interaction from year to year.

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    have negative consequences in terms of the subsequent interpersonal behaviors that children display. Relationship conflict may act to suppress displays of prosocial behavior and may exacerbate the use of aggressive tactics (as perceived by peers). 6 Children who are involved in conflictual relationships with teachers may be less motivated to display prosocial behaviors or may feel that the behavioral options available to them are constrained by the aversive nature of these relationships. If children are exhibiting less prosocial behavior over time, this may, in turn, negatively affect their ability to form and maintain positive relationships with others (e.g., teachers and peers), thus initiating or perpetuating a cycle of behavioral and relational difficulties. These findings, and related findings by Howes and Hamilton (1993), emphasize the transactional nature or complex interplay that appears to exist between children's relationships and behavior during the early school years. In the future, findings from this study could be extended by broadening the assessment of the teacher-child relationship to include other sources or multiple perspectives on this relationship. In this investigation, the teacher-child relationship was assessed from the perspective of only one of the participants in the relationship (i.e., the teacher); future studies including children's perceptions of their teacher-child relationships would enhance researchers' understanding of the nature of this relationship (see Birch, 1997; Howes & Hamilton, 1993; Ladd, Birch, & Buns, 1997). Recently, Birch (1997) designed a system for obtaining peer nominations and ratings of children's teacher-child relationships and found that second- and third-grade children's assessments of their classmates' teacher-child relationships were significantly related to teachers' ratings of these relationships (rs ranged from .29 to .71; ps < .001). hi addition, observers' ratings of teacher-child relationship dimensions have been found to correlate in expected directions with teachers' ratings of the the same dimensions (e.g., Laddetal., 1997). In addition, because it is possible that some behavioral styles are conducive to forming and maintaining positive relationships in one domain but promote negative relationships in the other domain, it may be important for investigators to examine behaviors other than those considered in the present study. Behaviors that lead children to become "teachers' pets," for example, might foster resentment by the peer group (e.g., compliance that may be perceived as submissive behavior by peers). Further, some forms of disruptive behavior may be amusing to peers and may enhance children's peer relationships while simultaneously fostering conflictual relationships with teachers. Finally, some behavior-relationship linkages may only be relevant at certain points of the school adjustment process, and certain interactional styles (i.e., moving against, away from, and toward
    6 This association was small and significant for the peer-report but not the teacher-report composite. The former scale was a measure of peers' consensus as to which classmates engaged in two forms of aggressive behavior (verbal and physical). In contrast, the antisocial composite was a teacher-report measure of the frequency with which children engaged in both aggressive and hyperactive behaviors. These two measures were substantially correlated (r = .65). In view of these considerations, this finding is interpreted with caution and is subject to replication in future studies.

    Links Between the Early Teacher-Child Relationship and Changes in Children's Behavioral Orientations
    Some of the findings from this investigation were consistent with the second major premise that was examined in this investigation—that is, the contention that certain aspects of the teacher-child relationship may be associated with changes in children's behavioral orientations or adjustment over time. Specifically, conflict in kindergarten children's teacher-child relationships was associated with a decline in children's prosocial behavior over time, and to a lesser extent, gains in peer-perceived aggressive behavior. Thus, it is possible that certain processes that operate within teacher-child relationships (e.g., conflict)

    944

    BIRCH AND LADD Birch, S. H., & Ladd, G. W. (1996a, April). Continuity and change in the quality of teacher-child relationships: Links with children's early school adjustment. In S. H. Birch (Chair), Children's relationships with teachers: Assessment, continuity, and linkages with school adjustment. Symposium conducted at the annual meeting of the American Educational Research Association, New York. Birch, S. H., & Ladd, G. W. (1996b). Interpersonal relationships in the school environment and children's early school adjustment: The role of teachers and peers. In K. W. Wentzel& J. H. Juvonen( Eds.), Social motivation: Understanding children's school adjustment (pp. 199225). New \brk: Cambridge University Press. Birch, S. H., & Ladd, G. W. (1997). The teacher-child relationship and children's early school adjustment Journal of School Psychology, 35, 61-79. Brophy, J. E., & Evertson, C M . (1981). Student characteristics and teaching. New York: Longman. Brophy, J. E., & Good, T. (1974). Teacher-student relationships: Causes and consequences. New \brk: Holt, Rinehart & Winston. Bukowski, W.M., Newcomb, A. R, & Hartup, W. W. (1996). The company they keep: Friendship in childhood and adolescence. New Tfork: Cambridge University Press. Cairns, R. B., & Cairns, B. D. (1994). Lifelines and risks: Pathways of youth in our time. New M>rk: Cambridge University Press. Caspi, A., Elder, G. H., Jr., & Bern, D. J. (1987). Moving against the world: Life-course patterns of explosive children. Developmental Psychology, 23, 308-313. Caspi, A., Eldei; G. H., Jr., & Bern, D. J. (1988). Moving away from the world: Life-course patterns of shy children. Developmental Psychology, 24, 824-831. Cassidy, J., & Asher, S. R. (1992). Loneliness and peer relations in young children. Child Development, 63, 350-365. Cohen, J., & Cohen, P. (1983). Applied multiple regression/correlation analysis for the behavioral sciences, Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum. Coie, J. D., Dodge, K. A., & Kupersmidt, J. B. (1990). Peer group behavior and social status. In 5. R. Asher & J. D. Coie (Eds.), Peer rejection in childhood (pp. 17-59). New \brk: Cambridge University Press. Coie, J. D., & Kupersmidt, J. B. (1983). A behavioral analysis of emerging social status in boys' groups. Child Development, 54, 1400-1416. Coie, J. D., Underwood, M.( & Lochman, J. E. (1991). Programmatic intervention with aggressive children in the school setting. In D. J. Pepler & K. H. Rubin (Eds.), The development and treatment of childhood aggression (pp. 389-410). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum. Crick, N. R., & Ladd, G. W. (1990). Children's perceptions of the consequences of aggressive strategies: Do the ends justify being mean? Developmental Psychology, 26, 612-620. DeRosier, M. E., Kupersmidt, J. B., & Patterson, C. J. (1994). Children's academic and behavioral adjustment as a function of the chronicity and proximity of peer rejection. Child Development, 65, 1799-1813. Dodge, K. A, (1983). Behavioral antecedents of peer social status. Child Development, 54, 1386-1399. Dodge, K. A., & Frame, C. L. (1982). Social cognitive biases and deficits in aggressive boys. Child Development, 53, 620-635. Elicker, J., Englund, M., & Sroufe, L. A. (1992). Predicting peer competence and peer relationships in childhood from early parent-child relationships. In R. D. Parke & G. W. Ladd (Eds.), Family-peer relations: Modes of linkage (pp. 77-106). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum. Entwisle, D. R., & Astone, N. M. (1994). Some practical guidelines for measuring youth's race/ethnicity and socioeconomic status. Child Development, 65, 1521-1540. Erdley, C. A. (1996). Motivational approaches to aggression within the context of peer relationships. In K. W. Wentzel & J. H. Juvonen (Eds.), Social motivation: Understanding children's school adjustment (pp. 98-125). New York: Cambridge University Press.

    others) may assume different forms as children progress through school. Far example, as children mature, the incidence of teacherchild dependency is likely to decrease, and children who persist in dependency beyond the norm may suffer a variety of negative adjustment outcomes (e.g., poor peer relations, loneliness). As another example, aggressive behavior may shift from overt manifestations to more subtle forms as children grow older, and there is evidence that, in older children, peer rejection is related to more indirect forms of aggression and asocial behavior (see Coie, Dodge, & Kupersmidt, 1990). Thus, a developmental perspective that considers the unique challenges facing children of different ages as they progress through school is necessary.
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    In sum, findings from the present study suggest that children's early behavioral styles in the classroom have both concurrent and long-term relevance to the relationships that they form in the school environment. Early identification of these behavioral dispositions may alert researchers and classroom teachers to maladaptive interactional patterns that result in persistent negative relational outcomes and may thus facilitate efforts to design appropriate intervention programs that will promote adaptive styles of interpersonal interaction. Further, some similarities exist between the behavioral correlates of the relationships that children form with teachers and peers. Antisocial behaviors characterized as "moving against" other individuals appear to be aversive to both teachers and classmates and promote relational difficulties in both teacher-child and peer domains. Asocial behavior (moving "away from" others) seems to be another marker of concurrent and future relational problems, although not as strong an indicator as antisocial behavior. Behavioral orientations typified by "moving toward" others (e.g., prosocial), although closely tied to closeness with teachers, may not be as salient indicators of future relationship quality as antisocial or asocial behavior or may interact with these behaviors to yield certain adjustment outcomes. Finally, evidence suggesting that the relationships that children form in the school environment are associated with a variety of school adjustment outcomes (e.g., Birch & Ladd, 1996a, 1997; Cassidy & Asher, 1992; Ladd et al., 1997) highlights the importance of using early behavioral orientations as markers of later adjustment in social and scholastic arenas.

    References Achenbach, T. (1991). Manual for the Teacher's Report Form and 1991 profile. Burlington: University of Vermont, Department of Psychiatry. Allen, K. E., Hart, B., Buell, J. S., Harris, R R., & Wolfe, M. A. (1964). Effects of social reinforcement on isolate behavior of a nursery school child. Child Development, 35, 511-518. Asher, S. R., & Coie, J. D. (1990). Peer rejection in childhood. New "fork: Cambridge University Press. Berndt, T. J. f 1996). Exploring the effects of friendship quality on social development. In W. M. Bukowski, A. F. Newcomb, & W. W. Hartup (Eds.), The company they keep: Friendship in childhood and adolescence (pp. 346-365). New Yor)a: Cambridge University Press. Berndt, T. J., & Ladd, G. W. (1989). Peer relationships in child development. New \brk: Wiley. Birch, S. H. (1997, April). Children\'s nominations and ratings of teacherchild relationships: Measure development and implications for educational practice. Poster session presented at the biennial meeting of the Society for Research in Child Development, Washington, DC.

    BEHAVIOR AND THE TEACHER-CHILD RELATIONSHIP Rinnan, W., & Robbins, P. (1985). What's the point? Issues in the selection of treatment objectives. In B. Schneider, K. H. Rubin, & J. E. Ledingham (Eds.), Children's peer relations: Issues in assessment and intervention (pp. 4 1 - 5 4 ) . New York: Springer-Verlag. Homey, K. (1945). Our inner conflicts: A constructive theory of neurosis. New "York: Norton. Howes, C , & Hamilton, C. E. (1992). Children's relationships with child care teachers: Stability and concordance with parental attachments. Child Development, 63, 867-878. Howes, C , & Hamilton, C. E. (1993). The changing experience of child care: Changes in teachers and in teacher-child relationships and children's social competence with peers. Early Childhood Research

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    Quarterly, 8, 15-32.
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    946

    BIRCH AND LADD on preschool children's aggressive behavior. Journal of School Psychology, 16, 146-153. Received June 25, 1996 Revision received October 30, 1997 Accepted November 21, 1997 ?

    Younger A. L., Gentile, C. & Burgess, K. (1993). Children's perceptions of social withdrawal: Changes across age. In K. H. Rubin & J. B. Asendorpf (Eds.), Social withdrawal, inhibition, and shyness in childhood (pp. 215-236). New York: Cambridge University Press. Zahavi, S. L., & Asher, S. R. (1978). The effect of verbal instructions

    Call for Nominations
    This document is copyrighted by the American Psychological Association or one of its allied publishers. This article is intended solely for the personal use of the individual user and is not to be disseminated broadly.

    The Publications and Communications (P&C) Board has opened nominations for the editorships of the Journal of Abnormal Psychology, Journal of Comparative Psychology, Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology: Attitudes and Social Cognition, Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, Psychological Review, and Psychology, Public Policy, and Law for the years 2001-2006. Milton E. Strauss, PhD; Charles T. Snowdon, PhD; James H. Neely, PhD; Arie W. Kruglanski, PhD; Patrick H. DeLeon, PhD, JD; Robert A. Bjork, PhD; and Bruce D. Sales, JD, PhD, respectively, are the incumbent editors. Candidates should be members of APA and should be available to start receiving manuscripts in early 2000 to prepare for issues published in 2001. Please note that the P&C Board encourages participation by members of underrepresented groups in the publication process and would particularly welcome such nominees. Self-nominations are also encouraged. To nominate candidates, prepare a statement of one page or less in support of each candidate. Send nominations to the attention of the appropriate search chair— ? ? ? ? ? ? ? David L. Rosenhan, PhD, for Journal of Abnormal Psychology Lauren B. Resnick, PhD, for Journal of Comparative Psychology Joe L. Martinez, Jr., PhD, for JEP: Learning, Memory, and Cognition Sara B. Kiesler, PhD, for JPSP: Attitudes and Social Cognition Judith P. Worell, PhD, for Professional Psychology: Research and Practice Lyle E. Bourne, Jr., PhD, for Psychological Review Lucia A. Gilbert, PhD, for Psychology, Public Policy, and Law

    —to the following address: c/o Karen Sellman, P&C Board Search Liaison Room 2004 American Psychological Association 750 First Street, NE Washington, DC 20002-4242 The first review of nominations will begin December 7,1998.


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