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    天津十一选五走势图:Unit1 culture and communication_图文

    北京十一选五开奖结果 www.frdg.net Unit 1

    Communication across Cultures

    Warm-up

    Watch the Video Learning Objectives

    Unit 1

    Communication across Cultures

    Warm-up

    Watch the Video
    Watch a video clip from the movie The Prince and Me and answer the following questions: 1. In what sense is the interaction between Prince Edward and Paige Morgan an intercultural communication? The interaction between Prince Edward and Paige Morgan is of course a typical case of intercultural communication in the following senses:1) He is from Denmark while she is an American; 2) He is male while she is female; 3) He is from a royal upper-class family while she is from average lowermiddle class family; 4) He is sort of a dashing playboy while she is a hard-working university girl.

    Unit 1

    Communication across Cultures

    Warm-up

    Watch the Video
    2. What difficulties will they encounter possibly in their interaction? What strategies should we take to ensure a successful intercultural communication? What advice would you like to give to those involved in intercultural marriage? Open to different ideas.

    Unit 1

    Communication across Cultures

    Warm-up

    Watch the Video

    Unit 1

    Communication across Cultures

    Warm-up

    Learning Objectives Know what is globalization Know what is intercultural communication Know the importance of intercultural communication Know the blocks in the intercultural communication

    Unit 1

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    Detailed Reading

    Some Ideas Related to Globalization and Intercultural Communication Text Comprehension Reading I: Intercultural Communication: An Introduction Reading II: The Challenge of Globalization Discovering Problems: Slim Is Beautiful?

    Unit 1

    Communication across Cultures

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    Some Ideas Related to Globalization and Intercultural Communication
    1. What is Globalization Globalization refers to the increasing unification of the world?s economic order through reduction of such barriers to international trade as tariffs, export fees, and import quotas. The goal is to increase material wealth, goods, and services through an international division of labor by efficiencies catalyzed by international relations, specialization and competition. It describes the process by which regional economies, societies, and cultures have become integrated through communication, transportation, and trade. The term is most closely associated

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    with the term economic globalization: the integration of national economies into the international economy through trade, foreign direct investment, capital flows, migration, the spread of technology, and military presence. However, globalization is usually recognized as being driven by a combination of economic, technological, sociocultural, political, and biological factors. The term can also refer to the transnational circulation of ideas, languages, or popular culture through acculturation. An aspect of the world which has gone through the process can be said to be globalized.

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    2. The Challenge of Globalization
    Globalization poses four major challenges that will have to be addressed by governments, civil society, and other policy actors. 1) One is to ensure that the benefits of globalization extend to all countries. That will certainly not happen automatically. 2) The second is to deal with the fear that globalization leads to instability, which is particularly marked in the developing world.

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    3) The third challenge is to address the very real fear in the industrial world that increased global competition will lead inexorably to a race to the bottom in wages, labor rights, employment practices, and the environment. 4) And finally, globalization and all of the complicated problems related to it must not be used as excuses to avoid searching for new ways to cooperate in the overall interest of countries and people. Several implications for civil society, for governments and for multinational institutions stem from the challenges of globalization.

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    3. What Makes Intercultural Communication a Common Phenomenon?

    1) New technology, in the form of transportation and communication systems, has accelerated intercultural contact. Trips once taking days, weeks, or even months are now measured in hours. Supersonic transports now make it possible for tourists, business executives, or government officials to enjoy breakfast in San Francisco and dinner in Paris — all on the same day. 2) Innovative communication systems have also encouraged and facilitated cultural interaction. Communication satellites, sophisticated television transmission equipment,

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    and digital switching networks now allow people throughout the world to share information and ideas instantaneously. Whether via the Internet, the World Wide Web, or a CNN news broadcast, electronic devices have increased cultural contact. 3) Globalization of the economy has further brought people together. This expansion in globalization has resulted in multinational corporations participating in various international business arrangements such as joint ventures and licensing agreements. These and countless other economic ties mean that it would not be unusual for someone to work for an organization that does business in many countries.

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    4) Changes in immigration patterns have also contributed to the development of expanded intercultural contact. Within the boundaries of the United States, people are now redefining and rethinking the meaning of the word American. Neither the word nor the reality can any longer be used to describe a somewhat homogeneous group of people sharing a European heritage.

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    4. Six Blocks in Intercultural Communication Assumption of similarities One answer to the question of why misunderstanding and/or rejection occurs is that many people naively assume there are sufficient similarities among peoples of the world to make communication easy. They expect that simply being human and having common requirements of food, shelter, security, and so on makes everyone alike. Unfortunately, they overlook the fact that the forms of adaptation to these common biological and social needs and the values, beliefs,

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    and attitudes surrounding them are vastly different from culture to culture. The biological commonalties are not much help when it comes to communication, where we need to exchange ideas and information, find ways to live and work together, or just make the kind of impression we want to make.

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    Language differences The second stumbling block — language difference — will surprise no one. Vocabulary, syntax, idioms, slang, dialects, and so on all cause difficulty, but the person struggling with a different language is at least aware of being in trouble. A greater language problem is the tenacity with which some people will cling to just one meaning of a word or phrase in the new language, regardless of connotation or context. The variations in possible meaning, especially when inflection and tone are varied, are so difficult to cope with that they are often

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    waved aside. This complacency will stop a search for understanding. Even “yes” and “no” cause trouble. There are other language problems, including the different styles of using language such as direct, indirect; expansive, succinct; argumentative, conciliatory; instrumental, harmonizing; and so on. These different styles can lead to wrong interpretations of intent and evaluations of insincerity, aggressiveness, deviousness, or arrogance, among others.

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    Nonverbal misinterpretations Learning the language, which most visitors to foreign countries consider their only barrier to understanding, is actually only the beginning. To enter into a culture is to be able to hear its special “hum and buzz of implication.” This suggests the third stumbling block, nonverbal misinterpretations. People from different cultures inhabit different sensory realities. They see, hear, feel, and smell only that which has some meaning or importance for them. They abstract whatever fits into their personal world of recognition and then interpret it through the frame of reference of their own culture.

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    The misinterpretation of observable nonverbal signs and symbols — such as gestures, postures, and other body movements — is a definite communication barrier. But it is possible to learn the meanings of these observable messages, usually in informal rather than formal ways. It is more difficult to understand the less obvious unspoken codes of the other cultures, such as the handling of time and spatial relationships and the subtle signs of respect of formality.

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    Preconceptions and stereotypes The fourth stumbling block is the presence of preconceptions and stereotypes. If the label “inscrutable” has preceded the Japanese guests, their behaviors (including the constant and seemingly inappropriate smile) will probably be seen as such. The stereotype that Arabs are “inflammable” may cause U.S. students to keep their distance or even alert authorities when an animated and noisy group from the Middle East gathers. A professor who expects everyone from Indonesia, Mexico, and many other countries to “bargain” may unfairly interpret a hesitation or request from an international student as a move to get preferential treatment.

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    Stereotypes are over-generalized, secondhand beliefs that provide conceptual bases from which we make sense out of what goes on around us, whether or not they are accurate or fit the circumstances. In a foreign land their use increases our feeling of security. But stereotypes are stumbling blocks for communicators because they interfere with objective viewing of other people. They are not easy to overcome in ourselves or to correct in others, even with the presentation of evidence. Stereotypes persist because they are firmly established as myths or truisms by one?s own culture and because they sometimes

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    rationalize prejudices. They are also sustained and fed by the tendency to perceive selectively only those pieces of new information that correspond to the images we hold. Tendency to evaluate The fifth stumbling block to understanding between persons of differing cultures is the tendency to evaluate, to approve or disapprove, the statements and actions of the other person or group. Rather than try to comprehend thoughts and feelings from the worldview of the other, we assume our own culture or way of life is the most natural. This bias prevents the open-mindedness needed to examine attitudes and behaviors from the other?s point of view.

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    The miscommunication caused by immediate evaluation is heightened when feelings and emotions are deeply involved; yet this is just the time when listening with understanding is most needed. The admonition to resist the tendency to immediately evaluate does not mean that one should not develop one?s own sense of right and wrong. The goal is to look and listen empathetically rather than through the thick screen of value judgments that impede a fair and total understanding. Once comprehension is complete, it can be determined whether or not there is a clash in values or ideology. If so, some form of adjustment or conflict resolution can be put into place.

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    High anxiety High anxiety or tension, also known as stress, is common in Cross-cultural experiences due to the number of uncertainties present. The two words, anxiety and tension, are linked because one cannot be mentally anxious without also being physically tense. Moderate tension and positive attitudes prepare one to meet challenges with energy. Too much anxiety or tension requires some form of relief, which too often comes in the form of defenses, such as the skewing of perceptions, withdrawal, or hostility. That?s why it is considered a serious stumbling block.

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    Anxious feelings usually permeate both parties in an intercultural dialogue. The host national is uncomfortable when talking with a foreigner because he or she cannot maintain the normal flow of verbal and nonverbal interaction. There are language and perception barriers; silences are too long or too short; and some other norms may be violated. He or she is also threatened by the other?s unknown knowledge, experience and evaluation.

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    Reading I: Intercultural Communication: An Introduction Read “Reading I: Intercultural Communication: Introduction” and answer the following questions: 1. Is it still often the case that “everyone?s quick to blame the alien” in the contemporary world? This is still powerful in today?s social and political rhetoric. For instance, it is not uncommon in today?s society to hear people say that most, if not all, of the social and economic problems are caused by minorities and immigrants. An

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    2. What have made intercultural contact a very common phenomenon in our life today? Today?s intercultural encounters are far more numerous and of greater importance than in any time in history. 3. What?s the difference between today?s intercultural contact and that of any time in the past? New technology, in the form of transportation and communication systems, has accelerated intercultural contact; innovative communication systems have encouraged and facilitated cultural interaction; globalization of the economy has brought people together; changes in immigration patterns have also contributed to intercultural encounter.

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    4. How do you understand the sentence “culture is everything and everywhere”? Culture supplies us with the answers to questions about what the world looks like and how we live and communicate within that world. Culture teaches us how to behave in our life from the instant of birth. It is omnipresent. 5. What are the major elements that directly influence our perception and communication? The three major socio-cultural elements that directly influence perception and communication are cultural values, worldview (religion), and social organizations (family and state).

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    6. What does one?s family teach him or her while he or she grows up in it? The family teaches the child what the world looks like and his or her place in that world. 7. Why is it impossible to separate our use of language from our culture? Because language is not only a form of preserving culture but also a means of sharing culture. Language is an organized, generally agreed-upon, learned symbol system that is used to represent the experiences within a cultural community.

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    8. What are the nonverbal behaviors that people can attach meaning to? People can attach meaning to nonverbal behaviors such as gestures, postures, facial expressions, eye contact and gaze, touch, etc. 9. How can a free, culturally diverse society exist? A free, culturally diverse society can exist only if diversity is permitted to flourish without prejudice and discrimination, both of which harm all members of the society.

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    Reading II: The Challenge of Globalization Read “Reading II: The Challenge of Globalization” and answer the following questions: 1. Why does the author say that our understanding of the world has changed? In the past most people were born, lived, and died within a limited geographical area, never encountering people of other cultural backgrounds. Such an existence, however, no longer prevails in the world. With the advancement of science and technology, all people are faced with the challenge of understanding this fast changing world in which we live.

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    2. What is a “global village” like?

    As our world shrinks and its inhabitants become interdependent, people from remote cultures increasingly come into contact on a daily basis. In a “global village”, members of once isolated groups of people have to communicate with members of other cultural groups. These people may live thousands of miles away or right next door to each other. 3. What is considered as the major driving force of the post-1945 globalization?
    Technology, particularly telecommunications and computers are considered to be the major driving force.

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    4. What does the author mean by saying that “the ?global? may be more local than the ?local?”? The increasing global mobility of people and the impact of new electronic media on human communications make the world seem smaller. We may communicate more with people of other countries than with our neighbors, and we may be more informed of the international events than of the local events. In this sense, “the ?global? may be more local than the ?local?”.

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    5. Why is it important for businesspeople to know diverse cultures in the world? Effective communication may be the most important competitive advantage that firms have to meet diverse customer needs on a global basis. Succeeding in the global market today requires the ability to communicate sensitively with people from other cultures, a sensitivity that is based on an understanding of Cross-cultural differences.

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    6. What are the serious problems that countries throughout the world are confronted with? Countries throughout the world are confronted with serious problems such as volatile international economy, shrinking resources, mounting environmental contamination, and epidemics that know no boundaries.

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    7. What implications can we draw from the case of Michael Fay? This case shows that in a world of international interdependence, the ability to understand and communicate effectively with people from other cultures takes on extreme urgency. If we are unaware of the significant role culture plays in communication, we may place the blame for communication failure on people of other cultures.

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    8. What attitudes are favored by the author towards globalization? Globalization, for better or for worse, has changed the world greatly. Whether we like it or not, globalization is all but unstoppable. It is already here to stay. It is both a fact and an opportunity. The challenges are not insurmountable. Solutions exist, and are waiting to be identified and implemented. From a globalistic point of view, there is hope and faith in humanity.

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    Discovering Problems: Slim Is Beautiful? Read the passage “Discovering Problems: Slim Is Beautiful?” and choose the answer that is appropriate. 1) It seemed that black African women had little chance of winning an international competition in the Miss World pageant for years for the reason that A. year after year the beauty queen performed remarkably poorly. B. black African girls are too fat and not smart. C. the international competition is dominated by Western beauty ideals.

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    2) Which of the following statements is Not True?

    A. The new Miss World was 6 feet tall, stately and so skinny, shared all of those attributes of traditional beauty in Nigeria. B. People in Nigeria, especially in south-eastern Nigeria, hail a women?s rotundity as a sign of good health, prosperity and allure. C. In Nigerian the Coca-Cola-bottle voluptuousness is celebrated and ample back-sides and bosoms are considered ideals of female beauty.

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    3) “Lepa Shandi”, the title of a Nigeria movie, means ______. A. a 20-naira bill (奈拉,尼日利亚货币) B. a girl as slim as a 20-naira bill C. a local girl?s name

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    4) Which of the following statements is True? A. The fattening room is at the beginning of a centuries-old rite of passage from maidenhood to womanhood. B. The fattening room is like a kind of school where the girl is taught about motherhood. C. Beauty is in weight. To be called a “slim princess” is a praise.

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    5) Now if you have a skinny member in your family, you don?t have to be ashamed, it predicts
    A. the youthful preference for thinness represents a fad. B. the youthful preference for thinness represents a lasting cultural change.

    C. nothing important.

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    Activities

    Group Work Debate Cross-cultural Quiz Cloze Case Study

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    Group Work First share with your classmates whatever experiences you have had in communication that can be considered as intercultural. Then work together to decide whether each of the following cases of communication is possibly intercultural or not and, if it is, to what extent it is intercultural. Then try to place all the cases along a continuum of interculturalness, from the most intercultural to the least intercultural.

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    Communication between a Chinese university student and an American professor; a white Canadian girl and a black South African boy; a male manager and a female secretary; a father who is a farmer all his life and his son who works as an engineer; a teenager from Beijing and a teenager from Shanghai; a first-generation Chinese American and a third-generation one; a businessperson from Hong Kong and an artist from Xi?an; a software technician and a fisherman.

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    The following is tentatively suggested for measuring the degree of interculturalness of the cases given. They are presented from the most intercultural to the least intercultural: Communication between a Chinese university student and an American professor; Communication between a Canadian girl and a South African boy; Communication between a first-generation Chinese American and a third generation one; Communication between a businessperson from Hong Kong and an artist from Xi?an;

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    Communication between a teenager from Beijing and a teenager from Shanghai; Communication between a father who is a farmer all his life and his son who works as an engineer; Communication between a software technician and a fisherman; Communication between a male manager and a female secretary (supposing they are from the similar cultural and social backgrounds) .

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    Debate The class is to be divided into two groups and debate on the two different views mentioned in the following on intercultural communication. State your point of view clearly and support your argument with convincing and substantial evidence.

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    There are many viewpoints regarding intercultural communication but a familiar one is that “people are people,” basically pretty much alike; therefore increased interaction through travel, student exchange programs, and other such ventures should result in more understanding and friendship between nations. Others take a quite different view, particularly those who have done research in the field of speech communication and are fully aware of the complexities of interpersonal interaction, even within cultural groups. They do not equate contact with communication, do not believe that the simple experience of talking with someone insure a successful transfer of meanings

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    and feelings. Even the basic commonalities of birth, hunger, family and death are perceived and treated in vastly different ways by persons from different backgrounds. If there is a universal principle, it might be that each has been so subconsciously influenced by his own cultural upbringing that he assumes that the needs, desires, and basic assumptions of others are identical to his own.

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    Pro: People are people; more interactions would lead to greater understanding of each other. (Commonality precedes.) Con: People are shaped by different environments they are in; therefore, the difference overrides. (Difference precedes.)

    Possible Arguments for Pro:
    1. Human beings tend to draw close to one another by their common nature. We all have the common basic needs. 2. Rapid expansion of worldwide transportation and communication networks have made it far easier than ever before for people throughout the world to contact with one another.

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    3. The process of globalization may reduce the regional differences between people all over the world. We are all members of the “global village”. 4. Economic interdependence in today?s world requires people of different countries to interact on an unprecedented scale, and more interaction will result in more similarity among people. 5. More and more people from various cultures have to work and live together and they will adapt to each other to such an extent that cultural differences between them may no longer matter. Possible Arguments for Con: 1. People throughout the world may be similar in many aspects, but differences in habits and customs keep them apart.

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    2. Though the basic human needs are universally the same, people all over the world satisfy their needs in different ways. 3. As our society is becoming more and more diversified, differences between people tend to grow larger in some aspects. 4. It is differences between people that underlie the necessity of communication, and it does not follow that communication which may increase the possibility of understanding between people will always reduce differences. 5. People nowadays are more likely to try to maintain their unique cultural identities when they find themselves living or working with people of other cultures.

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    From the two opposite viewpoints, we can learn something that we should keep in mind when we are involved in intercultural communication. First, all human beings share some heritages that link us to one another. People throughout the world are pretty much alike in many aspects, and that is why it is possible for people of various cultures to communicate. However, what we have to realize is that there are also vast differences between people from various cultural groups. To really understand a person whose cultural background is different from yours can be very difficult, for both you and that person may be subconsciously influenced by each one?s cultural upbringing.

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    Cross-cultural Quiz Work in groups to find the possible cultural differences between Chinese and English-speaking people in the speech behaviors listed below. Speech behavior China English-speaking countries People usually say “Hello.” “Good morning /afternoon/evening.” “Nice to meet you./ Glad to see you.” or “How do you do?”

    When greeting each other, Greeting the Chinese often begin with “Have you eaten?” “Where are you going?” “What are you doing?”, etc.

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    Speech behavior

    China

    English-speaking countries People often apologize in their daily life even for the most trivial things. People tend to make requests directly and openly.

    Chinese people seem to Apologizing apologize less often than English-speaking people. The Chinese apologize only when they think it is about something that really matters. Chinese people tend to make Making requests in indirect ways, requests especially when the people involved are not on intimate terms with one another.

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    English-speaking countries Chinese people often express People tend to show Expressing their gratitude not just by what their gratitude more gratitude they say, but also by what they verbally to others do and what they give to others who have helped who have done them a favor. them. Chinese people are reluctant to People are more express their disapproval openly likely to express Expressing for fear of making others lose their disapproval disapproval face. If they have to express freely and directly. disapproval, they often prefer to do it in a very indirect way. China

    Speech behavior

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    Speech behavior

    China Chinese people tend to excuse themselves by claiming that the other party must be tired or busy, etc, showing consideration for the other party.

    English-speaking countries
    People usually use excuses to part related to themselves rather than to the other party.

    Leavetaking

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    Cloze Try to fill each of the following blanks with one of the given words. inability minor demonstrates values field human whose coexist increased conflicts

    The growth of intercultural communication as a ____ field (1) of study is based on a view of history that clearly demonstrates ___________ (2) people and cultures have been troubled by a persistent inability ______ (3) to understand and get along with groups and societies removed by space, ideology, appearance, and behavior from their own.

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    inability minor

    demonstrates values

    field human

    whose coexist

    increased conflicts

    What is intriguing about many of ______ human (4) civilization?s

    failures is that they appear to be personal as well as global. The
    story of humankind is punctuated with instances of face-to-face _______ (5) as well as international misunderstanding — major conflicts and _____ minor (6) quarrels that range from simple name-calling to isolationism or even armed conflict.

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    inability minor

    demonstrates values

    field human

    whose coexist

    increased conflicts

    It is obvious that increased ________ (7) contact with other cultures and subcultures makes it imperative for us to make a concerted effort to understand and get along with people whose _____ (8) beliefs and backgrounds may be vastly different from our own. The ability, through increased awareness and understanding, to peacefully coexist ______ (9) with people who do not necessarily share our lifestyles or values _____ (10) could benefit us not only in our own neighborhoods but could be the decisive factor in maintaining world peace.

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    Case Study Listen to a story in case one and discuss the following questions. 1. Why were Richard?s sincere compliments misunderstood by the Egyptian family? 2. What was wrong in the way Richard dealt with the problem in Japan? 3. Which behavior was considered improper in England when Richard was taking tea?

    Script

    Hint

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    While visiting Egypt, Richard, an engineer from the United States, was invited to a spectacular dinner at the home of an Egyptian friend. And what a dinner it was! Clearly the host and hostess had gone out of their way to entertain him. Yet, as he was leaving their home he made a special effort to thank them for their dinner and sensed something he said was wrong. Something about his sincere compliments was misunderstood. In Japan he had an even less pleasant experience though he thought he had handled it well. A number of serious mistakes had occurred in a project he was supervising. While the fault did not lie with any one person, he was a supervisor and at least partly to blame. At a special meeting called to discuss the problem, poor Richard made an effort to explain in detail why he had done what

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    he had done. He wanted to show that anybody in the same situation could have made the same mistake and to tacitly suggest that he should not be blamed unduly. He even went to the trouble of distributing materials which explained the situation rather clearly. And yet, even during his explanation, he sensed that something he was saying or doing was wrong. Even in England where he felt more at home, where he had no problems with language, this kind of misunderstanding occurred. He had been invited to take tea with one of his colleagues, a purely social, relaxed occasion. Tea was served along with sugar and cream. As he helped himself to some sugar and cream, he again sensed he had done something wrong. But what went wrong?

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    In this case, there seemed to be problems in communicating with people of different cultures in spite of the efforts to achieve understanding. We should know that in Egypt as in many cultures, the human relationship is valued so highly that it is not expressed in an objective and impersonal way. While Americans certainly value human relationships, they are more likely to speak of them in less personal, more objective terms. In this case, Richard?s mistake might be that he chose to praise the food itself rather than the total evening, for which the food was simply the setting or excuse. For his host and hostess it was as if he had attended an art exhibit and complimented the artist by saying, “What beautiful frames your pictures are in.”

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    In Japan the situation may be more complicated. Japanese people value order and harmony among a group, and the organization itself - be it a family or a vast corporation - is valued more than any particular member. In contrast, Americans stress individuality and are apt to assert individual differences when they seem justifiably to be in conflict with the goals or values of the group. In this case, Richard?s mistake was making great efforts to defend himself. Even if the others knew that the errors were not intentional, it is not right to defend yourself, even when your unstated intent is to help the group by warning others of similar mistakes. A simple apology and acceptance of the blame would have been appropriate. But for poor Richard only to apologize would have seemed to him to be subservient and unmanly.

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    Communication across Cultures

    Activities

    When it comes to England, we expect fewer problems between Americans and Englishmen than between Americans and almost any other group. In this case we might look beyond the gesture of taking sugar or cream to the values expressed in this gesture: for Americans, “Help yourself”; for the English counterpart, “Be my guest.” American and English people equally enjoy entertaining and being entertained, but they differ somewhat in the value of the distinction. Typically, the ideal guest at an American party is one who “makes himself at home,” even to the point of answering the door or fixing his own drink. For persons in many other societies, including at least this hypothetical English host, such guest behavior is presumptuous or rude.

    Unit 1

    Communication across Cultures

    Further Reading

    Intercultural Communication in the Context of Globalization

    by Liza Shokhina, Anton Nishchev

    Unit 1

    Communication across Cultures

    Further Reading

    “Globalization is not the only thing influencing events in the
    world today, but to extent that there is a North Star and a worldwide shaping force, it is this system.” Tomas Friedman Intercultural communication between peoples is an integral attribute of the human society development. Not a single country, even the one considered most powerful in political and economic aspect, can meet cultural and aesthetic requests and needs of the humankind without applying to the world cultural heritage, spiritual heritage of other countries and peoples. The modern world is developing towards globalization. In this regard, the issues about the role and the place of international communication become an integral part of life both for the humankind in general, as well as for the individual.

    Unit 1

    Communication across Cultures

    Further Reading

    Before getting deeper into these issues, we need to understand the way students perceive the term “globalization”. This term is perceived in a number of ways: “the unity of capital”, “disappearing of borders between nations and increasing the international division of labor”, “the similarity of values among different cultures”, “everybody and everything together”. As it can be noticed from the results of our survey, which we held our academic group recently, the majority of students find globalization as the unity in economic, political and cultural aspects. Taking this into consideration, we can conclude that international communication plays a great role in the process of globalization.

    Unit 1

    Communication across Cultures

    Further Reading

    And what is intercultural communication? “In its most general sense international communication occurs when a member of one culture produces a message for consumption by a member of another culture. More precisely, international communication is communication between people whose cultural perceptions and symbol systems are distinct enough to alter the communication event” (O. Kovbasyuk). In spite of the fact that this phenomenon is being researched by scholars from the whole world for many years, it still remains timely and causes controversies and discussions. Under the circumstances we would like to answer the list of questions: what is the role of intercultural communication in context of globalization? How

    Unit 1

    Communication across Cultures

    Further Reading

    will the process of globalization influence the humankind? Do we take into account cultural difference while we are joining the process of globalization, or do we globalize only for the sake of globalizing? The first aspect of our attention is that societies and communities have no choice of either to participate in process of globalization or not, but the character of their participation is shaped by specific social, cultural, economic and political conditions. This complex multi-level process of mediation between the global and local issues, being an inherent character of communication, promises to change not only the context, but likely the nature of intercultural communication. Thus, the question about the place of intercultural communication is ambiguous.

    Unit 1

    Communication across Cultures

    Further Reading

    On the one hand, due to intercultural communication, nations can engage in a dialog and find understanding during the process of searching and making decisions in crisis, critical, nonstandard situations. Not to make unsubstantiated statements the recent summit G-20 in London can be given. Countries with diametrically opposite points of view on the economic crisis?s roots managed to find consensus and start working out a common approach to the solution of worldwide problems. Another example to illustrate the same point is the Cuban missile crisis in 1962, when the whole world was standing on the brink of the nuclear war. The two leaders from a communist and a capitalist great powers made an agreement, which prevented humankind from treat of death.

    Unit 1

    Communication across Cultures

    Further Reading

    On the other hand, there are a lot of grievous examples

    when countries were unable to find understanding and to solve urgent problems and conflicts. This can be referred to the situations between Serbia and Kosovo, South Ossetia and Georgia, Moldova and Transnistria, Palestine and Israel. In each of these conflicts, opposing forces suppose they held the only right and appropriate opinions regarding the issues, and they did not want to compromise, therefore civilians suffered.

    Unit 1

    Communication across Cultures

    Further Reading

    Unit 1

    Communication across Cultures

    Further Reading

    In retrospect to the previous experience of the world history, we can ask a question: “Is the idea of the ?uniform? humankind feasible?” Can you imagine the situation when everyone has similar culture with similar values and similar beliefs? Maybe, in such world community, there will be no misunderstanding and obstacles in the process of communication. This would also mean the destruction of cultural diversity as a result of globalization. In such a case, the seemingly positive side of cultural destruction can be presented in the following way:

    Unit 1

    Communication across Cultures

    Further Reading

    Destruction of cultural diversity →destruction of communication obstacles →easiness to find understanding and to solve problems. It seems to also provide a great impulse to the development of society in economic and political aspects. But, if we scrutinize this problem closer, we can find a big amount of disadvantages connected with this outcome. Our cultural heritage would turn into dust because “culture is communication, communication is culture” (Hall). Moreover, due to the fact that this process of globalization is done by the “upper” side (according to the will of the strongest) and the opinion of individuals (national minorities) is not taken into consideration, resistance against globalization will increase. It casts doubt on the idea of a totally globalized world.

    Unit 1

    Communication across Cultures

    Further Reading

    If this problem is solved by radical measures, two worlds will be able to appear: the world of supporters and the world of opponents who will never have their place in such kind of a world. The above given contemplation allows us to make a conclusion, that the process of globalization is permanent. Under the circumstances, the era of globalization has at least two tends regarding its cultural aspect development. On the one hand, globalization is changing the traditional lifestyles of people. But on the other hand, some adaptation and protecting functions of each culture are generated, so the process of globalization takes an extremely controversial format. Within

    Unit 1

    Communication across Cultures

    Further Reading

    the bounds of intercultural communication, some common values and ideals (tolerance, equality of traditions, ethics and politics of responsibility) are being formed. However, the process of creation of commonalities within communicational interaction is not always smooth. For example, such universal values as human rights, which were accepted by western scholars as basic values, turn out to be incompatible with the political and cultural customs of many eastern countries. In order to prevent such incompatibilities, countries must find points of contact in which the principles of globalization do not contradict customs and traditions of these countries. Then, as

    Unit 1

    Communication across Cultures

    Further Reading

    we view it, the points of mutual contact should be found. In cases when it seems impossible to find points of mutual contact, countries should demonstrate tolerance and respect to each other. In this connection we can declare that the future of humankind depends only on us and on our actions towards each other. And understanding this is one of many steps which mankind must take in order to prosper together in peace.
    Notes:

    Thomas Loren Friedman (born July 20, 1953) is an American journalist, columnist and author. He writes a twice-weekly column for The New York Times. He has written extensively on foreign affairs including global trade, the Middle East, and environmental issues and has won the Pulitzer Prize three times.

    Unit 1

    Communication across Cultures

    Further Reading

    Discussion Topic: What shall we do with the trend of globalization: welcome it , neglect it or oppose it? As the world is becoming a global village, we are now in the process of the irresistible trend of globalization. What should be our attitudes towards it: welcome it, neglect it or oppose it? This is the question that everyone in the modern world should think about and find his own answer.
    Hint

    1. What is globalization in your eyes? List some examples of globalization in your life. 2. Is globalization a good thing or a bad thing in your eyes? 3. What role does intercultural communication play in the process of globalization?


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